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Effect of teratogenic drugs on human fetus thalidomide

 

Teratogenesis Teratogenesis from the Greek root means monster or harmful to any environmental factor that harms the fetus before birth. The study of this phenomenon is called teratology. Recognition of congenital anomalies caused by any type of teratogenic substance is defined. Teratogen may be a chemical, drug, infectious, disease in the pregnant mother, or a physical factor or change in the mother’s metabolism
Teratogenic effect is the effect of substances that are able to cross the placenta and may seriously damage the growth and development of the fetus or embryo and lead to abnormalities in the fetus or baby. Every pregnant mother may have a disease that she may have had before or during pregnancy. Some of these maternal diseases or drugs used to treat these diseases may have teratogenic effects on the fetus and interfere with fetal growth and development. Control of maternal diseases It is necessary to take medications before and during pregnancy

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, thalidomide was given to thousands of pregnant women around the world to relieve morning sickness and insomnia. This drug caused severe birth defects
Much has been written about the drug, its teratogenic effects, and the nature of the damage it causes. But there are few cases of aging and thalidomide damage. Two cases of health problems were musculoskeletal and mental health status. The social consequences of secondary injuries on lifelong disorders or their consequences have not been discussed. Teratogenic effects on thalidomide were discussed in 1960 and 1970. In the 2000s when thalidomide was approaching its fiftieth anniversary. Survivors arrived in middle age. Neuropathic and neurological symptoms, numbness, tingling, loss of sensitivity and skill, and paralysis are some of the injuries left in thalidomide survivors. 20% are neuropathic between the ages of 45 and 54. A number of thalidomide survivors from Australia and New Zealand showed new neurological symptoms. A number of survivors developed peripheral nerve disorders. Thalidomide can lead to heart failure, kidney failure, urinary tract, genitals and stomach and intestines. It can also lead to mental retardation
The mortality rate in infants exposed to this drug is 40%. Forty percent of children exposed to thalidomide survived only a few months after birth. Many parents with thalidomide complications commit suicide after the birth of their children

Thalidomide prevents angiogenesis. Prevents the formation of blood vessels in smooth muscle and the formation of new blood vessels in tissues and organs. Its effect causes cell death, altered gene expression and signaling. Loss of gene expression will cause more cell death. Such an event is destructive to rapidly forming tissues, such as organs, causing severe abnormalities and the destruction of the chondrogenic cell population

The initial formation of blood vessels is known as vasculogenesis. Endothelial cells close and form tubes through which blood cells will pass. The second process of angiogenesis is where the primary arteries are formed to form vascular networks in the body, organs and tissues. Angiogenesis continues into adulthood and throughout. By forming smooth muscle vessels, they can absorb the vessels and cause the vessel to mature. The rest of the endothelial cells will be subject to angiogenesis and will proliferate and migrate to the cardiovascular region. Many molecules regulate and control vascular formation, progression, conduction, and smooth muscle absorption, and these molecules include growth factors, vascular endothelium, and fibroblast growth factor. Thalidomide targets unstable endothelial angiogenic cells and prevents proliferation and migration to tissue. This rapid effect on tissues such as limb buds is devastating. The more time thalidomide is used at the beginning of angiogenesis, the more severe the effects when the smooth muscle is not yet covered. The later it happens. The limb is weak. Anti-angiogenic action and tissue defects are complications of thalidomide

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