Biotechnology can be likened to a tree whose roots are rooted in ancient sciences such as biology, molecular biology, genetics, microbiology, biochemistry, immunology, chemical engineering, biochemical engineering, botany, zoology, computer science, and pharmacy. Because of the many effects of biotechnology on human well-being, scientists believe that in the future biotechnology will be one of the most powerful tools for human existence. Today, the scope of biotechnology activity is very wide and ranges from diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases to the production of drugs, food sources, environmental protection and energy conservation and includes various fields. New biotechnology is one of the hopes of the next century to meet many different human needs and a solution to ensure food security of the world’s growing population and is one of the seven key fields of technology in the world this century. From the intersection of different sciences with biotechnology, the list of branches of biotechnology is as follows: Medical biotechnology, Agricultural biotechnology, Pharmaceutical biotechnology, Microbial biotechnology, Marine biotechnology, Biotechnology, Industrial biology, Environmental biotechnology, Food biotechnology, Environmental biotechnology, Food biotechnology , Livestock and poultry biotechnology, oil biotechnology, etc. can be named. The application of biotechnology in the 21st century is such that it will have a profound effect on the economy, health, treatment, the environment, education, agriculture, industry, nutrition, and other aspects of human life. For this reason, scientists have dubbed the 21st century the world of biotechnology.
In the temporal division, three periods can be considered for the evolution of biotechnology: 1. The historical period in which human beings subconsciously use biological processes to produce fermented products such as bread, dairy products, pickles, and vinegar, and so on. The Egyptians baked bread with yeast and dough four thousand years ago. During this period, simple and basic processes of biotechnology and especially human fermentation were used. 2. Develop the early period of the present century by consciously using the techniques of fermenting and killing microorganisms in suitable environments and subsequently using fermenters in the production of antibiotics, enzymes, food applications, organic chemicals and other compounds. During that period, it took over part of the science of industrial microbiology, and the process of using these processes in human life continues today. However, it is predicted that many of the above processes will be gradually affected by the use of modern biotechnology techniques and will change towards more improvement and efficiency. 3. The new era of biotechnology, which, with the help of the science of “genetics”, is transforming human life. New biotechnology has been developing for some time and is gaining momentum. Since 1976, methods of biotechnology and genetic engineering have begun by transferring genes from one microorganism to another. Previously, scientists used the natural and intrinsic properties of organisms or microorganisms in biotechnological processes, but now, with advances in biology, molecular and genetics, and deeper understanding of the components and mechanisms of cell science, we have been able to specialize in cell and biological sciences. Properties, organisms or microorganisms, and organisms or microorganisms, with completely new properties, can be used to produce new compounds with much higher quantities and higher efficiencies.
Benefits of Biotechnology
Biotechnology has opened up an exciting scientific front in agriculture. New biotechnology techniques are fast, highly specific, and resource efficient. The power of biotechnology is no longer an imaginary power. In the last few years, we have been able to put into action what was just thinking. For example, scientists have learned how to genetically modify some plants to increase their resistance to certain herbicides, or use biotechnology to make safer and more effective vaccines against viral and bacterial diseases such as rabies, diarrhea and snow fever. Biotechnology today has been able to work on the genes of living organisms and make changes in the direction of the predicted goals, which in this sense is a direct involvement in the content of genetic information of living cells and success in producing new and better species.
New methods of biotechnology in agricultural science include cell culture, tissue culture and plant protoplasts, somatic cell hybrids, embryo manipulation and transfer, and recombinant DNA to identify the nature of gene transfer and control. Scientists have used many of these methods to optimize plants and animals. For example, more than 40 types of plants have been produced from protoplast attachment, including potatoes and tomatoes. Tissue culture has been widely used by scientists today as one of the most fundamental methods of biotechnology. Through these methods, several million identical cells can be produced from one cubic centimeter of plant tissue or organ, from which millions of plants with identical properties can potentially be obtained. During this method, it is possible to study the plant better in the shortest time and with the highest possible reliability. For example, in a research laboratory called MAX Planck in Germany, an experiment found that out of 42,000 potato tissues tested, only 73 (4%) were resistant to potato fungus. The resistant tissue was propagated and the resistant plants were transferred to the fungus and then to the field. This method of obtaining resistant varieties was practiced for only 8 months, while from 1975 to 1980 it took at least 10 to 15 years through plant breeding methods. This will take at least 30 years for other plants, including oil palms. At present, in industrialized countries, this method has become very popular and dramatic changes have taken place in the production of plant species, crops with new characteristics.
Biotechnology has made possible new methods of optimizing plants cost-effectively and in a variety of ways, for example by increasing resistance to dangers and diseases, new ways to control weeds, weeds, more resistance to weeds, more resistance to weeds, and more resistance to weeds. And salts and chemicals (such as aluminum), the use of “better nutrients” such as nitrogen, and the improvement of product quality by modifying the properties of substances such as fatty acids, amino acids, flavors, tastes, and preserving the quality of flavors. He mentioned plants (such as the use of nitrogen, photosynthesis), the production of flowers and seeds, and the distribution of nutrients between stems and seeds.