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Small size but very functional: microRNAs And their role in the progression and control of breast and lung cancers

 
 
 

Lung and breast cancers are malignant tumors of the chest. Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In most cases, lung cancer (up to 80%) progresses to advanced cancer due to delayed diagnosis. Every year, 220,000 lung cancer patients are diagnosed in the United States, with smoking being the main reason for its progression. Late diagnosis and metastasis to other vital organs of the body such as the liver, bone and nervous system are responsible for the prognosis of lung cancer patients. Lung cancers are classified into two main categories, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC accounts for the majority of lung cancers (up to 88%). Normal lung structure includes It is the bronchioles and alveoli that surround the blood vessels, and when lung cancers develop, this natural structure is disrupted by the infiltration of tumor cells and stroma,

Like lung cancer, breast cancer is still the leading cause of death. It is estimated that one in eight British women is diagnosed with breast cancer. Early detection of breast cancer is very important in the treatment and improvement of the prognosis

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as non-coding molecules and short RNAs, potential diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic factors for breast and lung cancers. There are two major types of tumors, including tumor-blocking and tumor-promoting miRNAs, which have been shown to play a role in breast and lung cancers. In the case of lung cancer, miRNAs have been shown to be able to affect proliferation and metastasis. In this way, countless factors are affected by miRNAs. For example, miRNA-195 and miRNA-497 can inhibit the progression of lung cancer and colony formation by rearranging beta-modifying growth factor (TGF-β)
There are also miRNAs that facilitate the malignancy of lung cancer. miRNA-143-3 stimulates metastasis in lung cancer cells. Lung cancer cell metastasis is inhibited by miRNA-192-5p through negative regulation of TRIM44. Chemical resistance develops when the growth and migration of lung cancer cells increase

Another similar story can be seen in breast cancer cells. Tumor-suppressing and tumor-stimulating miRNAs have been identified in breast cancer. Tumor enhancers such as miRNA-532-5p increase breast cancer proliferation through ras-associated growth inhibitors (RERGs). In contrast, tumor suppressor miRNAs, such as miRNA-539, prevent breast cancer from replicating through protein-specific inhibition (SP1)
The role of miRNAs in breast and lung cancers is due to their ability to regulate molecular and cellular pathways. Lack of regulation in miRNA expression is associated with cancer progression, suggesting an important role for miRNAs in the progression and inhibition of lung and breast cancer cells. Today, miRNAs are used as diagnostic and prognostic factors in lung and breast cancers. New miRNA-based therapies can be used in clinical trials and in the treatment of lung and breast cancer patients. However, we are still at the starting point and more studies are needed to evaluate the role of ‌miRNAs in malignant tumors

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